18 September 2017 Formulation of long-wavelength indocyanine green nanocarriers
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Indocyanine green (ICG), a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved fluorophore with excitation and emission wavelengths inside the “optical imaging window,” has been incorporated into nanocarriers (NCs) to achieve enhanced circulation time, targeting, and real-time tracking in vivo. While previous studies transferred ICG exogenously into NCs, here, a one-step rapid precipitation process [flash nanoprecipitation (FNP)] creates ICG-loaded NCs with tunable, narrow size distributions from 30 to 180 nm. A hydrophobic ion pair of ICG-tetraoctylammonium or tetradodecylammonium chloride is formed either in situ during FNP or preformed then introduced into the FNP feed stream. The NCs are formulated with cores comprising either vitamin E (VE) or polystyrene (PS). ICG core loadings of 30 wt. % for VE and 10 wt. % for PS are achieved. However, due to a combination of molecular aggregation and Förster quenching, maximum fluorescence (FL) occurs at 10 wt. % core loading. The FL-per-particle scales with core diameter to the third power, showing that FNP enables uniform volume encapsulation. By varying the ICG counter-ion ratio, encapsulation efficiencies above 80% are achieved even in the absence of ion pairing, which rises to 100% with 1∶1 ion pairing. Finally, while ICG ion pairs are shown to be stable in buffer, they partition out of NC cores in under 30 min in the presence of physiological albumin concentrations.
© 2017 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
Vikram J. Pansare, Vikram J. Pansare, William J. Faenza, William J. Faenza, Hoang Jack Lu, Hoang Jack Lu, Douglas H. Adamson, Douglas H. Adamson, Robert K. Prud’homme, Robert K. Prud’homme, } "Formulation of long-wavelength indocyanine green nanocarriers," Journal of Biomedical Optics 22(9), 096007 (18 September 2017). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.JBO.22.9.096007 . Submission: Received: 22 May 2016; Accepted: 26 July 2017
Received: 22 May 2016; Accepted: 26 July 2017; Published: 18 September 2017

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