Collagen is a major constituent of the eye and understanding its architecture and biomechanics is critical to preserve and restore vision. We, recently, demonstrated polarized light microscopy (PLM) as a powerful technique for measuring properties of the collagen fibers of the eye, such as spatial distribution and orientation. Our implementation of PLM, however, required sectioning the tissues for imaging using transmitted light. This is problematic because it limits analysis to thin sections. This is not only slow, but precludes study of dynamic events such as pressure-induced deformations, which are central to the role of collagen. We introduce structured polarized light microscopy (SPLM), an imaging technique that combines structured light illumination with PLM to allow imaging and measurement of collagen fiber properties in thick ocular tissues. Using pig and sheep eyes, we show that SPLM rejects diffuse background light effectively in thick tissues, significantly enhancing visualization of optic nerve head (ONH) structures, such as the lamina cribrosa, and improving the accuracy of the collagen fiber orientation measurements. Further, we demonstrate the integration of SPLM with an inflation device to enable direct visualization, deformation tracking, and quantification of collagen fibers in ONHs while under controlled pressure.