A practical algorithm for estimating the wavelength-dependent refractive index (RI) of a turbid sample in the spatial frequency domain with the aid of Kramers–Kronig (KK) relations is presented. In it, phase-shifted sinusoidal patterns (structured illumination) are serially projected at a high spatial frequency onto the sample surface (mouse scalp) at different near-infrared wavelengths while a camera mounted normally to the sample surface captures the reflected diffuse light. In the offline analysis pipeline, recorded images at each wavelength are converted to spatial absorption maps by logarithmic function, and once the absorption coefficient information is obtained, the imaginary part (k) of the complex RI (CRI), based on Maxell’s equations, can be calculated. Using the data represented by k, the real part of the CRI (n) is then resolved by KK analysis. The wavelength dependence of n ( λ ) is then fitted separately using four standard dispersion models: Cornu, Cauchy, Conrady, and Sellmeier. In addition, three-dimensional surface-profile distribution of n is provided based on phase profilometry principles and a phase-unwrapping-based phase-derivative-variance algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate the capability of the proposed idea for sample’s determination of a biological sample’s RI value.