9 May 2018 Navigating surgical fluorescence cameras using near-infrared optical tracking
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Fluorescence guidance facilitates real-time intraoperative visualization of the tissue of interest. However, due to attenuation, the application of fluorescence guidance is restricted to superficial lesions. To overcome this shortcoming, we have previously applied three-dimensional surgical navigation to position the fluorescence camera in reach of the superficial fluorescent signal. Unfortunately, in open surgery, the near-infrared (NIR) optical tracking system (OTS) used for navigation also induced an interference during NIR fluorescence imaging. In an attempt to support future implementation of navigated fluorescence cameras, different aspects of this interference were characterized and solutions were sought after. Two commercial fluorescence cameras for open surgery were studied in (surgical) phantom and human tissue setups using two different NIR OTSs and one OTS simulating light-emitting diode setup. Following the outcome of these measurements, OTS settings were optimized. Measurements indicated the OTS interference was caused by: (1) spectral overlap between the OTS light and camera, (2) OTS light intensity, (3) OTS duty cycle, (4) OTS frequency, (5) fluorescence camera frequency, and (6) fluorescence camera sensitivity. By optimizing points 2 to 4, navigation of fluorescence cameras during open surgery could be facilitated. Optimization of the OTS and camera compatibility can be used to support navigated fluorescence guidance concepts.
© 2018 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
Matthias N. van Oosterom, Matthias N. van Oosterom, David A. den Houting, David A. den Houting, Cornelis J.H. van de Velde, Cornelis J.H. van de Velde, Fijs W.B. van Leeuwen, Fijs W.B. van Leeuwen, "Navigating surgical fluorescence cameras using near-infrared optical tracking," Journal of Biomedical Optics 23(5), 056003 (9 May 2018). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.JBO.23.5.056003 . Submission: Received: 7 December 2017; Accepted: 9 April 2018
Received: 7 December 2017; Accepted: 9 April 2018; Published: 9 May 2018

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