1 October 2001 In vivo imaging of light-emitting probes
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In vivo imaging of cells tagged with light-emitting probes, such as firefly luciferase or fluorescent proteins, is a powerful technology that enables a wide range of biological studies in small research animals. Reporters with emission in the red to infrared (>600 nm) are preferred due to the low absorption in tissue at these wavelengths. Modeling of photon diffusion through tissue indicates that bioluminescent cell counts as low as a few hundred can be detected subcutaneously, while ~106 cells are required to detect signals at ~2 cm depth in tissue. Signal-to-noise estimates show that cooled back-thinned integrating charge coupled devices (CCDs) are preferred to imageintensified CCDs for this application, mainly due to their high quantum efficiency (~85%) at wavelengths >600 nm where tissue absorption is low. Instrumentation for in vivo imaging developed at Xenogen is described and several examples of images of mice with bioluminescent cells are presented.
Bradley W. Rice, Michael D. Cable, Michael B. Nelson, "In vivo imaging of light-emitting probes," Journal of Biomedical Optics 6(4), (1 October 2001). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.1413210

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