1 April 2003 Temperature modulation of the visible and near infrared absorption and scattering coefficients of human skin
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J. of Biomedical Optics, 8(2), (2003). doi:10.1117/1.1559997
We determine temperature effect on the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients (μa and μ's) of human forearm skin. Optical and thermal simulation data suggest that μa and μ's are determined within a temperature-controlled depth of ≈ 2 mm. Cutaneous μ's change linearly with temperature. Change in μa was complex and irreversible above body normal temperatures. Light penetration depth δ in skin increased on cooling, with considerable person-to-person variations. We attribute the effect of temperature on μ's to change in refractive index mismatch, and its effect on μa to perfusion changes. The reversible temperature effect on μ's was maintained during more than 90 min. contact between skin and the measuring probe, where temperature was modulated between 38 and 22°C for multiple cycles While temperature modulated μ's instantaneously and reversibly, μa exhibited slower response time and consistent drift. There was a statistically significant upward drift in μa and a mostly downward drift in μ's over the contact period. The drift in temperature-induced fractional change in μ's was less statistically significant than the drift in μ's. Δμ's values determined under temperature modulation conditions may have less nonspecific drift than μ's which may have significance for noninvasive determination of analytes in human tissue.
Omar S. Khalil, Shu-Jen Yeh, Michael G. Lowery, Xiaomao Wu, Charles F. Hanna, Stanislaw Kantor, Tzyy-Wen Jeng, Johannes Sake Kanger, Rene Alexander Bolt, Frits F. M. de Mul, "Temperature modulation of the visible and near infrared absorption and scattering coefficients of human skin," Journal of Biomedical Optics 8(2), (1 April 2003). http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1559997



Temperature metrology


Tissue optics



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