1 July 2003 Multiphoton microscopy: an optical approach to understanding and resolving sulfur mustard lesions
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Sulfur mustard (SM; 2,2-dichloroethyl sulfide) is a percutaneous alkylating agent first used as a chemical weapon at Ypres, Belgium, in World War I. Despite its well-documented history, the primary lesions effecting dermal–epidermal separation and latent onset of incapacitating blisters remain poorly understood. By immunofluorescent imaging of human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) and epidermal tissues exposed to SM (400 μM for 5 min), we have amassed unequivocal evidence that SM disrupts adhesion complex molecules, which are also disrupted by epidermolysis bullosa-type blistering diseases of the skin. Images of keratin 14 (K14) in control cells showed tentlike filament networks linking the HEK's basolateral anchoring sites to the dorsal surface of its nuclei. Images from 6-h postexposure profiles revealed early disruption (≤ 1 h) and progressive collapse of the K14 cytoskeleton. Collapse involved focal erosions, loss of functional asymmetry, and displacement of nuclei beneath a mat of jumbled filaments. In complementary studies, 1-h images showed statistically significant (p<0.01) decreases of 25 to 30% in emissions from labeled α6β4 integrin and laminin 5, plus disruption of their receptor–ligand organization. Results indicate that SM alkylation destabilizes dermal–epidermal attachments and potentiates vesication by disrupting adhesion complex molecules and associated signaling mechanisms required for their maintenance and repair.
© (2003) Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
Robert J. Werrlein, Robert J. Werrlein, Janna S. Madren-Whalley, Janna S. Madren-Whalley, } "Multiphoton microscopy: an optical approach to understanding and resolving sulfur mustard lesions," Journal of Biomedical Optics 8(3), (1 July 2003). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.1584687 . Submission:

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