1 November 2004 Influence of nonhomogeneous distribution of topically applied UV filters on sun protection factors
Author Affiliations +
J. of Biomedical Optics, 9(6), (2004). doi:10.1117/1.1805557
The aim of the present study is the development of a method to determine quantitatively in vivo the influence of homogeneity of the distribution of sunscreen containing UV filters on the sun protection factor (SPF). The SPF of a sunscreen applied either topically or inside an optical cell (pure or in a solvent) fixed above the skin is determined in vivo. In both cases, in vivo measurements using the erythema formation are carried out. Identical optical parameters of the skin are realized in both experiments. In addition, both in vitro (using tape stripping) and in vivo microscopic measurements are performed to analyze the homogeneity of distribution of the topically applied substances. An SPF of 8 is measured in the experiment applying the UV filters topically, whereas this value increases by a factor of 10 if the same amount of filter substances is distributed homogeneously in solution inside the optical cell. Tape strips removed from skin treated with the sunscreen reflect the inhomogeneous distribution of the topically applied substances on the skin. The direct correlation of homogeneity of distribution with the SPF opens up the possibility to increase the SPF by optimizing the formulation.
Jürgen Lademann, Andreas Rudolph, Ute Jacobi, Hans-Jürgen Weigmann, Hans Schaefer, Wolfram Sterry, "Influence of nonhomogeneous distribution of topically applied UV filters on sun protection factors," Journal of Biomedical Optics 9(6), (1 November 2004). http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1805557


Tissue optics

Ultraviolet radiation

In vivo imaging

Optical filters

In vitro testing



Use of digital holographic microscopy in tomography
Proceedings of SPIE (April 14 2006)
Physical studies of Kuiper Belt objects an ESO VLT...
Proceedings of SPIE (February 13 2003)
Instrument to detect syncope and the onset of shock
Proceedings of SPIE (March 17 2016)
Protecting SWIR cameras from laser threats
Proceedings of SPIE (June 11 2013)

Back to Top