1 April 2002 Spatial watermark for image content authentication
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J. of Electronic Imaging, 11(2), (2002). doi:10.1117/1.1455015
Abstract
This paper is focused on digital image authentication, considered as the process of evaluating the integrity of image contents relatively to the original picture and being able to detect, in an automatic way, malevolent content modifications. A computationally efficient spatial watermarking technique for authentication of visual information, robust to small distortions caused by compression, is described. In essence, content-dependent authentication data are embedded into the picture, by modifying the relationship of image projections throughout the entire image. To obtain a secure data embedding and extraction procedure, directions onto which image parts are projected depend on a secret key. In order to guarantee minimum visibility of the embedded data, the insertion process is used in conjunction with perceptual models, exploiting spatial domain masking effects. The viability of the method as a means of protecting the content is assessed under JPEG compression and semantic content modifications. With the present system, robustness to JPEG compression up to compression factors of about 1:10 can be achieved, maintaining the subjective image quality after watermark insertion. At the same time, it is possible to detect and localize small image manipulations.
Maria Paula Queluz, "Spatial watermark for image content authentication," Journal of Electronic Imaging 11(2), (1 April 2002). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.1455015
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