In the mid-1950s Land, while developing instant color film, repeated Maxwell's 1861 three-color projection experiments. By accident, a two-color red and white projection appeared on the screen. Fascinated by the multicolored images that he saw, Land studied two-color phenomena extensively, published a series of papers, and developed a prototype red and white television system with Texas Instruments. This work describes Land's original red and white projections using equipment now at the Rowland Institute. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, McKee, Benton, and McCann investigated color images from stimuli that excited only rods and long-wave (L) cones. They used dark adaptation curves, flicker-fusion rates, the Stiles-Crawford effect, and apparent sharpness to differentiate rod and middle- (M) and short-wave (S) cone responses. They showed that color from rods and L cones under the right stimulus conditions was nearly identical to cone-cone color.