This paper presents a comparison of color spaces for material classification. The study includes three device-independent (CIELAB, CIELUV, and CIE XYZ) and seven device-dependent spaces (RGB, HSV, YIQ, YUV, YCbCr, Ohta’s I1I2I3, and RG-YeB-WhBl). The pros and cons of the different spaces and the procedures for converting color data among them are discussed in detail. An experiment based on 12 different image data sets was carried out to comparatively evaluate the performance of each space for material classification purposes. The results showed that CIELAB markedly outperformed the other spaces followed by HSV and CIELUV. Conversely, CIE XYZ came out as the worst performing space. Interestingly, no significant difference emerged among the performance of the other device-dependent spaces.