Stereo matching is a vital requirement for many applications, such as three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction, robot navigation, object detection, and industrial measurement. To improve the practicability of stereo matching, a method using census cost over cross window and segmentation-based disparity refinement is proposed. First, a cross window is obtained using distance difference and intensity similarity in binocular images. Census cost over the cross window and color cost are combined as the matching cost, which is aggregated by the guided filter. Then, winner-takes-all strategy is used to calculate the initial disparities. Second, a graph-based segmentation method is combined with color and edge information to achieve moderate under-segmentation. The segmented regions are classified into reliable regions and unreliable regions by consistency checking. Finally, the two regions are optimized by plane fitting and propagation, respectively, to match the ambiguous pixels. The experimental results are on Middlebury Stereo Datasets, which show that the proposed method has good performance in occluded and discontinuous regions, and it obtains smoother disparity maps with a lower average matching error rate compared with other algorithms.