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3 December 2019 Encoder–decoder with double spatial pyramid for semantic segmentation
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Semantic segmentation, as a dense pixelwise classification task, is of great significance to scene understanding. Many approaches based on convolutional neural network still suffer from two kinds of challenges: (1) insufficient semantic information results in semantic obfuscation between similar categories, (2) loss of spatial information leads to inaccurate location of inconspicuous objects. To tackle these challenges, we design a network with an encoder–decoder architecture based on two proposed modules: global pyramid attention module (GPAM) and pyramid decoder module (PDM). Specifically, GPAM exploits an attention mechanism as global prior knowledge to adaptively capture discriminative features for enhancing semantic representation, and PDM employs small convolutions connected in parallel to predict adjacent position relationships for refining spatial information. A series of ablation experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of our designs, and our network achieves a mean intersection over union score of 83.4% on PASCAL VOC 2012 dataset and 78.5% on Cityscapes dataset.

© 2019 SPIE and IS&T 1017-9909/2019/$28.00 © 2019 SPIE and IS&T
Huifang Kong, Jie Hu, Lei Fan, Xiaoxue Zhang, and Yao Fang "Encoder–decoder with double spatial pyramid for semantic segmentation," Journal of Electronic Imaging 28(6), 063007 (3 December 2019).
Received: 2 June 2019; Accepted: 13 November 2019; Published: 3 December 2019

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