Ovarian cancer is particularly deadly because it is usually diagnosed after it has metastasized. We have previously identified features of ovarian cancer using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy (targeting collagen). OCT provides an image of the ovarian microstructure, while SHG provides a high-resolution map of collagen fiber bundle arrangement. Here, we investigated the diagnostic potential of dual-modality OCT and SHG imaging. We conducted a fully crossed, multireader, multicase study using seven human observers. Each observer classified 44 ex vivo mouse ovaries (16 normal and 28 abnormal) as normal or abnormal from OCT, SHG, and simultaneously viewed, coregistered OCT and SHG images and provided a confidence rating on a six-point scale. We determined the average receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, area under the ROC curves (AUC), and other quantitative figures of merit. The results show that OCT has diagnostic potential with an average AUC of 0.91±0.06. The average AUC for SHG was less promising at 0.71±0.13. The average AUC for simultaneous OCT and SHG was not significantly different from OCT alone, possibly due to the limited SHG field of view. The high performance of OCT and coregistered OCT and SHG warrants further investigation.