Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides structural information of laryngeal tissue which is comparable to histopathological analysis of biopsies taken under general anesthesia. In awake patients, movements impede clinically useful OCT acquisition. Therefore, an automatic compensation of movements was implemented into a swept source OCT-laryngoscope. Video and OCT beam path were combined in one tube of 10-mm diameter. Segmented OCT images served as distance sensor and a feedback control adjusted the working distance between 33 and 70 mm by synchronously translating the reference mirror and focusing lens. With this motion compensation, the tissue was properly visible in up to 88% of the acquisition time. During quiet respiration, OCT contrasted epithelium and lamina propria. Mean epithelial thickness was measured to be 109 and 135 μm in female and male, respectively. Furthermore, OCT of mucosal wave movements during phonation enabled estimation of the oscillation frequency and amplitude. Regarding clinical issues, the OCT-laryngoscope with automated working distance adjustment may support the estimation of the depth extent of epithelial lesions and contribute to establish an indication for a biopsy. Moreover, OCT of the vibrating vocal folds provides functional information, possibly giving further insight into mucosal behavior during the vibratory cycle.