23 November 2016 Reaching 200-ps timing resolution in a time-of-flight and depth-of-interaction positron emission tomography detector using phosphor-coated crystals and high-density silicon photomultipliers
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Abstract
Current research in the field of positron emission tomography (PET) focuses on improving the sensitivity of the scanner with thicker detectors, extended axial field-of-view, and time-of-flight (TOF) capability. These create the need for depth-of-interaction (DOI) encoding to correct parallax errors. We have proposed a method to encode DOI using phosphor-coated crystals. Our initial work using photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) demonstrated the possibilities of the proposed method, however, a major limitation of PMTs for this application is poor quantum efficiency in yellow light, corresponding to the wavelengths of the converted light by the phosphor coating. In contrast, the red-green-blue-high-density (RGB-HD) silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) have a high photon detection efficiency across the visible spectrum. Excellent coincidence resolving time (CRT; <210  ps) was obtained by coupling RGB-HD SiPMs and  3 × 3 × 20  mm3 lutetium fine silicate crystals coated on a third of one of their lateral sides. Events were classified in three DOI bins (∼6.7-mm width) with an average sensitivity of 83.1%. A CRT of ∼200  ps combined with robust DOI encoding is a marked improvement in the phosphor-coated approach that we pioneered. For the first time, we read out these crystals with SiPMs and clearly demonstrated the potential of the RGB-HD SiPMs for this TOF-DOI PET detector.
© 2016 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
Sun II Kwon, Alessandro Ferri, Alberto Gola, Eric Berg, Claudio Piemonte, Simon R. Cherry, Emilie Roncali, "Reaching 200-ps timing resolution in a time-of-flight and depth-of-interaction positron emission tomography detector using phosphor-coated crystals and high-density silicon photomultipliers," Journal of Medical Imaging 3(4), 043501 (23 November 2016). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.JMI.3.4.043501 . Submission:
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