10 October 2016 Laparoscopic stereoscopic augmented reality: toward a clinically viable electromagnetic tracking solution
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The purpose of this work was to develop a clinically viable laparoscopic augmented reality (AR) system employing stereoscopic (3-D) vision, laparoscopic ultrasound (LUS), and electromagnetic (EM) tracking to achieve image registration. We investigated clinically feasible solutions to mount the EM sensors on the 3-D laparoscope and the LUS probe. This led to a solution of integrating an externally attached EM sensor near the imaging tip of the LUS probe, only slightly increasing the overall diameter of the probe. Likewise, a solution for mounting an EM sensor on the handle of the 3-D laparoscope was proposed. The spatial image-to-video registration accuracy of the AR system was measured to be 2.59±0.58  mm and 2.43±0.48  mm for the left- and right-eye channels, respectively. The AR system contributed 58-ms latency to stereoscopic visualization. We further performed an animal experiment to demonstrate the use of the system as a visualization approach for laparoscopic procedures. In conclusion, we have developed an integrated, compact, and EM tracking-based stereoscopic AR visualization system, which has the potential for clinical use. The system has been demonstrated to achieve clinically acceptable accuracy and latency. This work is a critical step toward clinical translation of AR visualization for laparoscopic procedures.
Xinyang Liu, Xinyang Liu, Sukryool Kang, Sukryool Kang, William Plishker, William Plishker, George Zaki, George Zaki, Timothy D. Kane, Timothy D. Kane, Raj Shekhar, Raj Shekhar, } "Laparoscopic stereoscopic augmented reality: toward a clinically viable electromagnetic tracking solution," Journal of Medical Imaging 3(4), 045001 (10 October 2016). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.JMI.3.4.045001 . Submission:

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