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30 October 2017 Simulation study of quantitative precision of the PET/X dedicated breast PET scanner
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The goal for positron emission tomography (PET)/X is measuring changes in radiotracer uptake for early assessment of response to breast cancer therapy. Upper bounds for detecting such changes were investigated using simulation and two image reconstruction algorithms customized to the PET/X rectangular geometry. Analytical reconstruction was used to study spatial resolution, comparing results with the distance of the closest approach (DCA) resolution surrogate that is independent of the reconstruction method. An iterative reconstruction algorithm was used to characterize contrast recovery in small targets. Resolution averaged <2  mm full width at half maximum when using depth-of-interaction (DOI) information. Without DOI, resolution ranged from 2.1±0.13 to 3.1±0.42  mm for scanner crystal thickness between 5 and 15 mm. The DCA resolution surrogate was highly correlated to image-based FWHM. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis showed specificity and sensitivity over 95% for detecting contrast change from 5:1 to 4:1 (area under curve >99%). For PET/X parameters modeled here, the ability to measure contrast changes benefited from higher photon absorption efficiency of thicker crystals while being largely unaffected by degraded resolution obtained with thicker crystals; DOI provided marginal improvements. These results assumed perfect data corrections and other idealizations, and thus represent an upper bound for detecting changes in small lesion radiotracer uptake of clinical interest using the PET/X system.
© 2017 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) 2329-4302/2017/$25.00 © 2017 SPIE
Chengeng Zeng, Paul E. Kinahan, Hua Qian, Robert L. Harrison, Kyle E. Champley, and Lawrence R. MacDonald "Simulation study of quantitative precision of the PET/X dedicated breast PET scanner," Journal of Medical Imaging 4(4), 045502 (30 October 2017).
Received: 3 February 2017; Accepted: 27 September 2017; Published: 30 October 2017

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