Segmentation of pulmonary lobes in inspiration and expiration chest CT scan pairs is an important prerequisite for lobe-based quantitative disease assessment. Conventional methods process each CT scan independently, resulting typically in lower segmentation performance at expiration compared to inspiration. To address this issue, we present an approach, which utilizes CT scans at both respiratory states. It consists of two main parts: a base method that processes a single CT scan and an extended method that utilizes the segmentation result obtained on the inspiration scan as a subject-specific prior for segmentation of the expiration scan. We evaluated the methods on a diverse set of 40 CT scan pairs. In addition, we compare the performance of our method to a registration-based approach. On inspiration scans, the base method achieved an average distance error of 0.59, 0.64, and 0.91 mm for the left oblique, right oblique, and right horizontal fissures, respectively, when compared with expert-based reference tracings. On expiration scans, the base method’s errors were 1.54, 3.24, and 3.34 mm, respectively. In comparison, utilizing proposed subject-specific priors for segmentation of expiration scans allowed decreasing average distance errors to 0.82, 0.79, and 1.04 mm, which represents a significant improvement (
) compared with all other methods investigated.