1 October 2002 Performance enhancement of 157 nm Newtonian catadioptric objectives
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Abstract
Newtonian design forms have been developed to explore high numerical aperture imaging systems at the wavelength of 157 nm with elements made of CaF2 crystal. First-generation systems working at 0.60 numerical aperature (NA) are currently printing features smaller than 130 nm for resist-process development. Second-generation design forms, working with variable numerical apertures above 0.75 NA, will push feature sizes significantly below 100 nm. Several aspects of second-generation designs have been improved to accommodate the need for characterizing and enhancing imaging performance. Closed-loop methods of optimization to reduce aberrations have been developed to characterize and control the effects of crystal-related birefringence on imagery. In addition these systems are learning vehicles to enhance knowledge of aberration-image performance dependence at high numerical apertures.
James E. Webb, Timothy Rich, Anthony R. Phillips, James D. Cornell, "Performance enhancement of 157 nm Newtonian catadioptric objectives," Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS 1(3), (1 October 2002). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.1506373
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