1 October 2002 Resolution enhancement of 157 nm lithography by liquid immersion
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We present the results of a preliminary feasibility study of liquid immersion lithography at 157 nm. A key enabler has been the identification of a class of commercially available liquids, perfluoropolyethers, with low 157 nm absorbance α157≈10 cm–1 base 10. With 157 nm index of refraction around 1.36, these liquids could enable lithography at numerical aperture ≈1.25 and thus resolution of 50 nm for k1 = 0.4. We have also performed preliminary studies on the optical, chemical, and physical suitability of these liquids for use in high throughput lithography. We also note that at longer wavelengths, there is a wider selection of transparent immersion liquids. At 193 nm, the most transparent liquid measured, de-ionized water, has α193 = 0.036 cm–1 base 10. Water immersion lithography at 193 nm would enable resolution of 60 nm with k1 = 0.4.
© (2002) Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
Michael Switkes, Michael Switkes, Mordechai Rothschild, Mordechai Rothschild, } "Resolution enhancement of 157 nm lithography by liquid immersion," Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS 1(3), (1 October 2002). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.1502260 . Submission:

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