29 May 2012 Development of laser-produced plasma sources for extreme ultraviolet lithography
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Abstract
The current status of laser-produced plasma source development for extreme ultraviolet lithography is reviewed. The advantages of using Sn as a fuel for 13.5 nm are discussed as is the rationale for using Nd:YAG prepulses followed by CO2 irradiation of mass-limited Sn droplet targets. To date CEs of around 6% have been obtained in the laboratory while much lower values closer to 2% have been achieved in high repetition rate industrial sources suitable for use in high-volume manufacturing (HVM). The discrepancy appears largely to arise from the mismatch between the effective target lifetime and pulse duration as well as incomplete vaporization or fragmentation of the droplets. Improvements in laser technology and droplet delivery systems should see a marked improvement in the near future, so that CEs of 5% to 6% should eventually be realized in industrial sources. To keep pace with Moore's law, development work has begun on sources operating at 6.x nm, the wavelength selected for lithography beyond 13.5 nm. It is shown that Gd plasmas with an electron temperature close to 110 eV will provide the solution at this wavelength and the strongest lines ocurring in a Gd plasma are identified.
© 2012 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
Gerard D. O'Sullivan, Bowen Li, "Development of laser-produced plasma sources for extreme ultraviolet lithography," Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS 11(2), 021108 (29 May 2012). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.JMM.11.2.021108 . Submission:
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