26 April 2013 Critical dimension uniformity and contact edge roughness in extreme ultraviolet lithography: effect of photoacid generator, sensitizer and quencher
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Abstract
One of the main challenges for developing extreme ultraviolet resists is to satisfy critical dimension uniformity (CDU) and sidewall roughness of contacts to the allowable limit. To this end, further understanding of the effects of resist ingredients on CDU and contact edge roughness (CER) is required. We investigate the effects of a photoacid generator (PAG), sensitizer and quencher concentrations on the CDU and CER. We find that the dependencies of CDU on sensitizer and quencher are dominated by photon shot noise (PSN) effects whereas a more complicated interplay between PSN and PAG distribution statistics should be considered in the dependence of CDU on PAG concentration. The estimated CER parameters [root mean square (RMS) value and correlation length ξ ] exhibit a merging trend when plotted against the final critical dimension (CD). In addition, RMS value increases with exposure dose and PAG loading contrary to shot noise expectations. Power spectrum analysis reveals the dominant contribution of low-frequency undulations to CER, which is attributed to the enhanced interaction along specific directions between the aerial image and/or acid kinetics of nearby contacts. This inter-contact effect is further intensified with CD for fixed pitch and may explain the observed CER behavior.
© 2013 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
Vijaya-Kumar Murugesan Kuppuswamy, Vassilios Constantoudis, Evangelos Gogolides, Alessandro V. Pret, Roel Gronheid, "Critical dimension uniformity and contact edge roughness in extreme ultraviolet lithography: effect of photoacid generator, sensitizer and quencher," Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS 12(2), 023003 (26 April 2013). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.JMM.12.2.023003 . Submission:
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