The exploration and optimization of image formation in partially coherent EUV projection systems with complex source shapes requires flexible, accurate, and efficient simulation models. This paper reviews advanced mask diffraction and imaging models for the highly accurate and fast simulation of EUV lithography systems, addressing important aspects of the current technical developments. The simulation of light diffraction from the mask employs an extended rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) approach, which is optimized for EUV applications. In order to be able to deal with current EUV simulation requirements, several additional models are included in the extended RCWA approach: a field decomposition and a field stitching technique enable the simulation of larger complex structured mask areas. An EUV multilayer defect model including a database approach makes the fast and fully rigorous defect simulation and defect repair simulation possible. A hybrid mask simulation approach combining real and ideal mask parts allows the detailed investigation of the origin of different mask 3-D effects. The image computation is done with a fully vectorial Abbe-based approach. Arbitrary illumination and polarization schemes and adapted rigorous mask simulations guarantee a high accuracy. A fully vectorial sampling-free description of the pupil with Zernikes and Jones pupils and an optimized representation of the diffraction spectrum enable the computation of high-resolution images with high accuracy and short simulation times. A new pellicle model supports the simulation of arbitrary membrane stacks, pellicle distortions, and particles/defects on top of the pellicle. Finally, an extension for highly accurate anamorphic imaging simulations is included. The application of the models is demonstrated by typical use cases.