1 October 2003 High-resolution maskless lithography
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An innovative high-resolution maskless lithography system is designed employing a combination of low- and high-numerical-aperture (NA) projection lens systems along with integrated micro-optics, and using Texas Instruments' super video graphic array (SVGA) digital micromirror device (DMD) as the spatial and temporal light modulator. A mercury arc lamp filtered for the G-line (λ = 435.8 nm) is used as the light source. Exposure experiments are performed using data extraction and transfer software, and synchronous stage control algorithms derived from a point array scrolling technique. Each exposure scan produces a field width (W) of approximately 8.47 mm with a field length (longitudinal field) limited only by onboard memory capacity. DMD frame rates of up to 5 kHz (kframes/s), synchronized to the stage motion, are achievable. In this experiment, TSMR-8970XB10 photoresist (PR), diluted to 3.8 cP with PR thinner is prepared. The PR is spin-coated onto a chrome-coated glass substrate to 1.0-μm thickness with 0.1-μm uniformity. A 0.4-μm scan step is used and 27,000 DMD data frames are extracted and transferred to the DMD driver. Results indicate consistent 1.8-μm line space (L/S) resolved across the entire field width of 8.47 mm. Given optimized exposure and development conditions, 1.5-μm L/S is also observed at certain locations. The potential of this maskless lithography system is substantial; its performance is sufficient for applications in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), photomasking, high-resolution LCD, high-density printed circuit boards (PCBs), etc. Higher productivity is predicted by a custom H-line (λ = 405 nm) lens system designed and used in conjunction with a violet diode laser systems and the development of a real-time driver.
Kin Foong Chan, Zhiqiang Feng, Ren Yang, Akihito Ishikawa, WenHui Mei, "High-resolution maskless lithography," Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS 2(4), (1 October 2003). http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1611182

Digital micromirror devices

Maskless lithography


Microlens array



Scanning electron microscopy

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