1 July 2004 Low-voltage electron beam lithography resist processes: top surface imaging and hydrogen silisesquioxane bilayer
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Abstract
A hydrogen silisesquioxane (HSQ) bilayer process and a top surface imaging (TSI) process are investigated for application as low-voltage electron beam resist systems. Namatsu, van Delft, and others have reported printing exceptionally small features using high-voltage electron beam exposure of HSQ at high-exposure doses (~2000 μC/cm2 at 100 kV). The shallow penetration depth of low-voltage electrons results in greatly reduced dose requirements, and smooth, high-resolution images are generated at 1 kV with an exposure dose of less than 60 μC/cm2. HSQ's high silicon content enable it to be used in a bilayer form utilizing reactive ion etching with an oxygen plasma, thus generating high aspect ratio images. TSI has been studied in the past by numerous researchers at low voltages using various TSI schemes. We investigate the use of a chemically amplified TSI resist process based on poly (t-BOC-hydroxystyrene). The effect of base quencher loading in the resist formulation on line edge roughness and resolution is investigated, and is found to have a dramatic influence. High-resolution, high aspect ratio images are printed down to 40 nm, and exhibit only moderate levels of line edge roughness. Furthermore, proximity effects at 1, 2, and 3 kV are examined and compared to simulation.
Andrew Thomas Jamieson, C. Grant Willson, Yautzong E. Hsu, Alan D. Brodie, "Low-voltage electron beam lithography resist processes: top surface imaging and hydrogen silisesquioxane bilayer," Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS 3(3), (1 July 2004). http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1758268
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KEYWORDS
Line edge roughness

Electron beam lithography

Electron beams

Photoresist processing

Image processing

Etching

Hydrogen

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