1 October 2004 Continuous-tone grayscale mask fabrication using high-energy-beam-sensitive glass
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For highest efficiency optical devices, it is desirable to form continuously graded device features. We describe a technique to produce such features through the fabrication of a continuous-tone grayscale mask and subsequent grayscale photolithography. The design of the mask fabrication process is outlined, including the high-energy-beam-sensitive (HEBS) glass electron-beam exposure response characterization, and the generation of an exposure profile with inherent proximity effect correction. Application of the process is demonstrated through fabrication of smooth-facet retroreflectors, with features that are not possible to produce either by a grayscale process that employs discreet gray levels or by anisotropic wet etch techniques.
Thomas E. Dillon, Anita Sure, Janusz A. Murakowski, Dennis W. Prather, "Continuous-tone grayscale mask fabrication using high-energy-beam-sensitive glass," Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS 3(4), (1 October 2004). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.1793156

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