1 January 2005 Simulation of the coupled thermal/optical effects for liquid immersion nanolithography
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Immersion lithography is proposed as a method for improving optical microlithography resolution to 45 nm and below via the insertion of a high-refractive-index liquid between the final lens surface and the wafer. Because the liquid acts as a lens component during the imaging process, it must maintain a high, uniform optical quality. One potential source of optical degradation involves changes in the liquid's index of refraction caused by changing temperatures during the exposure process. Two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics models from previous studies investigated the thermal and fluid effects of the exposure process on the liquid temperature associated with a single die exposure. We include the global heating of the wafer from multiple die exposures to better represent the "worst-case" liquid heating that occurs as an entire wafer is processed. The temperature distributions predicted by these simulations are used as the basis for rigorous optical models to predict effects on imaging. We present the results for the fluid flow, thermal distribution, and imaging simulations. Both aligned and opposing flow directions are investigated for a range of inlet pressures that are consistent with either passive systems or active systems using filling jets.
So-Yeon Baek, Alexander C. Wei, Daniel C. Cole, Gregory F. Nellis, Michael S. Yeung, Amr Y. Abdo, Roxann L. Engelstad, Mordechai Rothschild, Michael Switkes, "Simulation of the coupled thermal/optical effects for liquid immersion nanolithography," Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS 4(1), 013002 (1 January 2005). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.1858331


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