1 July 2005 Phase-shifting mask polarimetry: monitoring polarization at 193-nm high numerical aperture and immersion lithography with phase shifting masks
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J. of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS, 4(3), 031102 (2005). doi:10.1117/1.2038487
Abstract
A technique using phase-shifting test mask patterns is introduced for monitoring polarization balance of the illumination in high numerical aperture (NA) and immersion projection printing systems. Test mask patterns are derived from high NA proximity effects and serve to scatter light into high angle spatial frequencies. This creates a central intensity dependent only on the local state of polarization. A test mask consisting of multiple patterns is proposed to monitor the polarization from any arbitrary illumination scheme. Proper calibration of the test reticle enables reasonable mask-making limitations and mask topography effects to be tolerated. A set of linear equations enable determination of the Stokes parameters from a series of resist images. Practical examples are simulated with rigorous electromagnetic theory. In resist, this technique is likely to monitor polarization with a sensitivity of more than 1.5% of the clear field per percent change in polarization state for on-axis illumination, or more than 0.75% for off-axis illumination. The effects of various realistic imaging conditions are discussed.
Gregory R. McIntyre, Andrew R. Neureuther, "Phase-shifting mask polarimetry: monitoring polarization at 193-nm high numerical aperture and immersion lithography with phase shifting masks," Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS 4(3), 031102 (1 July 2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.2038487
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KEYWORDS
Polarization

Polarimetry

Photomasks

Calibration

Reticles

Phase shifts

Point spread functions

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