1 July 2005 Polarization effects associated with hyper-numerical-aperture (>1) lithography
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J. of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS, 4(3), 031104 (2005). doi:10.1117/1.2039081
Abstract
The use of immersion technology will extend the lifetime of 193-nm technology by enabling numerical apertures (NAs) much greater than 1.0. The ultimate limits of NA are explored by analysis of polarization effects at the reticle and imaging effects at the wafer. The effect of reticle birefringence with polarized illumination is explored. The effects on critical dimension (CD) uniformity are mitigated if the maximum birefringence is <5 nm/cm. Hertzian or micropolarization due to the size of the reticle structures is examined through rigorous simulation. For the regime of interest, 20- to 50-nm imaging, it is found that dense features on a Cr binary reticle will polarize the light into the TE component upward of 15%. Below this regime, the light becomes polarized in the TM direction. The use of polarization in the illuminator for imaging will result in substantial gains in exposure latitude and mask error factor (MEF) when the NA~1.3 with 45-nm lines at 193 nm, with overall polarization effects increasing with decreasing k1. The end-of-line pullback for 2-D patterns is reduced by the use of TE polarization in the illuminator. The interaction between the reticle-induced polarization and the illumination polarization is shown to be significant when an analysis is done using rigorous mask simulation instead of the more common Kirchhoff approximation. The impact of birefringence in the lens is analyzed using Jones pupil matrices to create a local polarization error in the pupil. The photoresist process is shown to interact with polarization. Different photoresists will show varying degrees of sensitivity to polarization variation.
Donis G. Flagello, Bernd Geh, Steven G. Hansen, Michael Totzeck, "Polarization effects associated with hyper-numerical-aperture (>1) lithography," Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS 4(3), 031104 (1 July 2005). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.2039081
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