1 July 2005 General model for estimating bubble dissolution and droplet evaporation times
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Bubbles and droplets may be detrimental to the successful implementation of immersion lithography, depending in part on their lifetime in the system. In this work, a model is developed to estimate the dissolution times of nitrogen bubbles in pure water that may be free-floating or adhered to a solid surface. The model is then extended to small free and adhered droplets. Bubble dissolution and droplet evaporation times for typical immersion lithography conditions are presented.
Timothy A. Shedd, "General model for estimating bubble dissolution and droplet evaporation times," Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS 4(3), 033004 (1 July 2005). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.2037427


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