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1 July 2008 Role of surfactants in adhesion reduction for step and flash imprint lithography
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The step-and-flash imprint lithography process requires the clean separation of a quartz template from a polymer, and the force required to create this separation must be minimized to prevent the generation of defects. Fluorinated surfactant additives to the imprint fluid address this problem by migrating to the template-polymer interface and forming a local layer with ideal properties for adhesive fracture. Tensile and four-point bend fracture experiments show that surfactants lower the modulus of the imprint polymer and decrease the fracture energy. The fracture energy is further decreased by using a nonreactive, liquid surfactant versus a surfactant that reacts with the polymer matrix. Angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicate that surfactant migration is more effective with a fluorinated surface treatment compared to an untreated quartz surface. This result shows that the use of fluorinated surfactants must be accompanied by a surface treatment that produces a similar energy or polarity to induce migration and lower the adhesive strength.
©(2008) Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
Michael W. Lin, Daniel J. Hellebusch, Kai Wu, Eui K. Kim, Kuan-Hsun Lu, Kenneth M. Liechti, John G. Ekerdt, Paul S. Ho, and C. Grant Willson "Role of surfactants in adhesion reduction for step and flash imprint lithography," Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS 7(3), 033005 (1 July 2008).
Published: 1 July 2008


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