Melasma is an abnormal acquired skin hyperpigmentation disorder, typically on the face, of unknown origin. It is considered a single disease and very little has been found regarding its pathogenesis. Hydroquinone, an aromatic organic molecule, has been considered as the gold standard substance for dermatological melasma treatment. This substance at high concentrations being absorbed by the skin may produce counterproductive disorders, such as blue or brownish-blue colored skin. In recent years, optical techniques based on the interaction of light with biological samples have become innovative methods for medical applications. We used Raman spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), to evaluate hydroquinone cation radicals in vitro at relatively low concentrations, laying the foundation for future biomedical applications. We present the experimental and simulated Raman signal in the presence of hydroquinone at concentrations as low as 0.1 M, as well as the experimental SERS signal assisted by gold nanorods obtained for the same molecule, which presents an electromagnetic enhancement factor of ∼104.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither SPIE nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the SPIE website.