27 June 2014 Brief review of cadmium telluride-based photovoltaic technologies
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J. of Photonics for Energy, 4(1), 040996 (2014). doi:10.1117/1.JPE.4.040996
Abstract
Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is the most commercially successful thin-film photovoltaic technology. Development of CdTe as a solar cell material dates back to the early 1980s when ∼10% efficient devices were demonstrated. Implementation of better quality glass, more transparent conductive oxides, introduction of a high-resistivity transparent film under the CdS junction-partner, higher deposition temperatures, and improved Cl-treatment, doping, and contacting approaches yielded <16% efficient cells in the early 2000s. Around the same time period, use of a photoresist plug monolithic integration process facilitated the demonstration of the first 11% efficient module. The most dramatic advancements in CdTe device efficiencies were made during the 2013 to 2014 time frame when small-area cell conversion efficiency was raised to 20% range and a champion module efficiency of 17% was reported. CdTe technology is attractive in terms of its limited life-cycle greenhouse gas and heavy metal emissions, small carbon footprint, and short energy payback times. Limited Te availability is a challenge for the growth of this technology unless Te utilization rates are greatly enhanced along with device efficiencies.
Bülent M. Başol, Brian McCandless, "Brief review of cadmium telluride-based photovoltaic technologies," Journal of Photonics for Energy 4(1), 040996 (27 June 2014). http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JPE.4.040996
Submission: Received ; Accepted
JOURNAL ARTICLE
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KEYWORDS
Glasses

Photovoltaics

Cadmium

Tellurium

Solar cells

Cadmium sulfide

Transparent conductors

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