20 June 2014 Photoelectrochemical performance of W-doped BiVO4 thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis
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Abstract
The effects of tungsten doping and hydrogen annealing on the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of bismuth vanadate (BiVO 4 ) photoanodes for solar water splitting were studied. Thin films of BiVO 4[/sub] were deposited on indium tin oxide-coated glass slides by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis of an aqueous solution containing bismuth nitrate and vanadium oxysulfate. Tungsten doping was achieved by adding either silicotungstic acid (STA) or ammonium metatungstate (AMT) to the precursor. The 1.7- to 2.2-μm-thick films exhibited a highly porous microstructure. Undoped films that were reduced at 375°C in 3% H 2 exhibited the largest photocurrent densities under 0.1  W cm −2 AM1.5 illumination, where photocurrent densities of up to 1.3  mA cm −2 at 0.5 V with respect to Ag/AgCl were achieved. Films doped with 1% or 5% (atomic percent) tungsten from either STA or AMT exhibited reduced PEC performance and greater sample-to-sample performance variations. Powder x-ray diffraction data indicated that the films continue to crystallize in the monoclinic polymorph at low doping levels but crystallize in the tetragonal scheelite structure at higher doping. It is surmised that the phase and morphology differences promoted by the addition of W during the deposition process reduced the PEC performance as measured by photovoltammetry.
© 2014 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
S. Keith Holland, S. Keith Holland, Melissa R. Dutter, Melissa R. Dutter, David J. Lawrence, David J. Lawrence, Barbara A. Reisner, Barbara A. Reisner, Thomas C. DeVore, Thomas C. DeVore, } "Photoelectrochemical performance of W-doped BiVO4 thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis," Journal of Photonics for Energy 4(1), 041598 (20 June 2014). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.JPE.4.041598 . Submission:
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