X-ray tubes and gamma ray cameras have traditionally involved trade-offs between spatial resolution and radiation flux. Recently we have shown that the use of a Fresnel zone plate as a spatially-coded source or aperture can avoid this trade-off. In radiology, this technique can eliminate the need for a rotating anode and give higher resolution, while in nuclear medicine it can be used either to decrease patient dose or exposure time, or to increase resolution and greatly simplify the apparatus. With a coded source or aperture, the image is also coded, like a hologram and can be reconstructed optically. The system is tomographic with information about all planes contained in a single film.