1 December 1974 The Ring Laser
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The use of the laser for the measurement of inertial rotation was recognized by Adolf Rosenthal in August 1961, only a few months after Javan's announcement of the first cw laser. Rosenthal showed that the sensitivity of the Sagnac rotation interferometer could be improved by many orders of magnitude by the use of laser principles to convert path length changes to frequency changes. He proposed a ring-type laser resonator which can support two counter rotating laser beams; any path difference between the clockwise and counter-clockwise cavity length introduced by inertial rotation would cause a frequency difference between the counter-rotating laser beams that is proportional to the rate of rotation.
Shaoul Ezekiel, "The Ring Laser," Optical Engineering 13(6), 136217 (1 December 1974). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.7978725 . Submission:

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