The technique of fabrication of optical surfaces by epoxy replication, historically used for the production of quality diffraction gratings, is presently being applied to producing a widening variety of optical components. Materials used in the optical replication process are reviewed along with the techniques for using them. Limitations in the process caused by materials and their impact on the optical product are presented. Other limitations caused by the operating environment are discussed and evaluated. Applications to both non-conventional, traditional and optical components, designed specifically to be fabricated by replication are presented.