This paper reviews the technical aspects and status of optical fiber waveguide, cabling, light sources, and signal detection. Advances in fiber waveguide have made possible the transmission of high data rate information over very small diameter waveguide. Four fiber types are currently receiving most attention as a result of their attenuation, dispersion, and cost characteristics. Light sources for fiber optical applications are very promising due to recent developments in semiconductor injection lasers. Receiver technology is well developed and avalanche photodiodes provide high sensitivity receiver performance for most data bandwidths of interest.