We derive the equations that permit the use of six different periodic analyzers for the frequency-mixing detection (FMD) of polarization-modulated light. The six periodic analyzers are (1) the rotating linear analyzer, (2) rotating half-wave plate and fixed linear analyzer, (3) rotating quarter-wave plate and fixed linear analyzer, (4) rotating linear analyzer and fixed linear analyzer, (5) oscillating-phase retarder and fixed linear analyzer, and (6) oscillating optical rotator and fixed linear analyzer. In all cases, the average polarization and the polarization and intensity modulation parameters of the light beam can be determined easily and explicitly from limited Fourier analysis of the detected signal.
R. M. A. Azzam,
"Frequency-Mixing Detection of Polarization-Modulated Light Using Different Periodic Analyzers," Optical Engineering 16(5), 165513 (1 October 1977). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.7972125