The application of Laser Doppler Velocimeters (LDVs) to the measurement of atmospheric processes has produced a wealth of information not previously available to the researcher. This information is providing a better understanding of a variety of both naturally and artificially induced phenomena which in turn is leading to even more varied applications. To date, such applications have included the measurement of wind profiles, dust devils, aircraft wake vortices, and wind shear. Future applications include a measurement program now underway that will permit extensive mapping of severe storm flow fields, a hardware definition study for a satellite-borne system that will allow for wind measurement on a global basis, and a flight program to assess a compact true air speed measurement system. This paper attempts to provide the reader with sufficient information to assess the status of research, development, and applications of atmospheric LDV systems. To accomplish this, an overview of the last thirteen years is presented, with the work grouped into several general areas, and some of the major results summarized. Since the majority of the work in this area has been performed with CO2 systems, a brief description of the principles of operation of typical pulsed and cw systems is provided. An extensive bibliography is provided.