Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) appears very promising for the remote, spatially and temporally precise probing of hostile combustion environments due to its large signal conversion efficiency and coherent signal nature. CARS is a wave mixing process in which incident laser beams at frequencies w1 and 0)2, with a frequency difference tuned to a Raman resonance in the molecular species being probed, interact to generate a coher-ent signal at frequency w3 = 2(.01 - w2. By analyzing the spectral distribution of the CARS signal, temperature measurements can be performed. Species concentration measurements derive from the intensity of the CARS radiation or, in certain cases, from its spectral shape. CARS spectra have been recorded in a variety of flames from the major flame constituents and generally show very good agreement with computer synthesized spectra. Significantly, CARS has been successfully demonstrated with both liquid and gaseous fuels in the primary zone and exhaust of practical combustors. Both thermometry and species concentration measurements have been performed. High pressure effects on CARS spectra have also been examined.
Robert J. Hall,
Alan C. Eckbreth,
"Combustion Diagnosis By Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS)," Optical Engineering 20(4), 204494 (1 August 1981). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.7972754