The history of the tracking telescope used at missile ranges is traced as both a metric and surveillance instrument. The history begins with the Askanias in 1937 and ends with the Distant Object Attitude Measuring System (DOAMS) in 1981. The history and capabilities of the cinetheodolites are discussed, as are fixed metric systems and mobile tracking mounts. All are discussed from a historical perspective to the state-of-the-art. The direction in which we must head to really advance the overall capabilities of photo-optical range instrumentation is briefly addressed.