The Magnetic Field Satellite (MAGSAT) was launched into low earth orbit on October 30, 1979, and reentered on June 11, 1980. It included a vector magnetometer which was successfully used to accurate-ly map the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field over most of the surface of the earth. To achieve the accuracy sought required arc second precision determination of the relative orientations of the three sensor axes in a coordinate system defined by optical references attached to the magnetometer. The calibration procedure consisted basically of accurate and repeatable positioning of the vector magnetometer within a unique magnetic test facility which nulls the earth's magnetic field, then generates magnetic fields of selected orientations and strengths. Analysis of the magnetometer sensor outputs together with data on the accurate positioning and optical reference alignment gave the axes orientations. We used precision theodolites and methods related to surveying techniques to do the accurate positioning and optical component alignment measurements.
Sanford W. Hinkal,
"Optical Alignment Support Of The Magnetic Field Satellite (MAGSAT) Vector Magnetometer Calibration," Optical Engineering 21(3), 213506 (1 June 1982). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.7972937