Optical information processing research aimed at Space Station automation applications is reviewed. The emphasis of the NASA Ames Research Center program is on intelligent optical pattern recognition and optical control processing. Attention is given to the primary functions of an overall scene understanding system: distortion-invariant optical feature generation, dimensionality reduction, object classification, and contextual information processing. A method of using synthetic discriminant functions to facilitate learning in a high-speed optical correlator is described. A discussion is presented of candidate analog and digital architectures for the optical implementation of state-estimation algorithms needed for the control of high-dimension dynamic systems. The multivariate system chosen for the optical control technology demonstration--a segmented, adaptive mirror and interferometrically based wavefront sensor--is also described.