The charge-coupled device dominates an ever-increasing variety of scientific imaging and spectroscopy applications. Recent experience indicates, however, that the full potential of CCD performance lies well beyond that realized in devices currently available. Test data suggest that major improvements are feasible in spectral response, charge collection, charge transfer, and readout noise. These properties, their measurement in existing CCDs, and their potential for future improvement are discussed in this paper.
James R. Janesick,
Morley M. Blouke,
"Scientific Charge-Coupled Devices," Optical Engineering 26(8), 268692 (1 August 1987). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.7974139