1 September 1987 Optical Tracking Using Charge-Coupled Devices
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Techniques and instruments developed for extracting precise positional information from CCD images of point-source and extended optical targets are described. With the use of thinned, backside-illuminated devices, performance levels close to those expected from straightforward geometric considerations are obtained. For ideal point sources (ie., stars outside of the earth's atmosphere), centerfinding accuracy of 1/100 pixel and measurement jitter of less than 1/250 pixel have been measured. Detailed tests showed that the main factor limiting tracker accuracy is small variation in the optical image shape rather than CCD noise or response nonuniformity. Methods of searching the entire field for the desired targets are described, along with windowing techniques for tracking. Also discussed are three specific examples of flight instruments previously developed or now being developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
Richard H. Stanton, Richard H. Stanton, James W. Alexander, James W. Alexander, Edwin W. Dennison, Edwin W. Dennison, Thomas A. Glavich, Thomas A. Glavich, Larry F. Hovland, Larry F. Hovland, } "Optical Tracking Using Charge-Coupled Devices," Optical Engineering 26(9), 269930 (1 September 1987). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.7974173 . Submission:

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