Spatial-frequency-domain Fourier-Mellin descriptors are proposed for the determination of object orientation and for object classification. The new methods require neither segmentation of the input image from the background nor an image centroid. The effect of noise is analyzed. Experimental results are shown.
Henri H. Arsenault,
"Frequency-Domain Fourier-Mellin Descriptors For Invariant Pattern Recognition," Optical Engineering 27(5), 275354 (1 May 1988). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.7976683