1 October 1990 Continuous facesheet low voltage deformable mirrors
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Litton/Itek Optical Systems has been a leader in the development of deformable mirrors for use in high quality optical systems since 1973. The monolithic piezoelectric mirror (MPM), which was introduced in 1974, has been the quality product against which all other visible wavelength compensators have been compared. The stacked actuator deformable mirror (SADM), first delivered in 1980, set new performance standards for infrared systems. These devices continue to maintain high quality large stroke performance in the field. In 1981 Itek began the development of a new concept in deformable mirrors, the low voltage electrodisplacive mirror (LVEM). Itek teamed with Bell Aerospace in 1984 to develop a cooled silicon electrodisplacive mirror (CSEM) technology. The CSEM development emphasized extending the LVEM technology to high energy laser systems applications by incorporating a silicon multiport pin-fin heat exchanger into the mirror structure. Recently, in 1988, Itek began developing a cost efficient cooled mirror technology compatible with moderate flux levels and quantity production. The LVEM uncooled technology has matured and represents the current state of the art in deformable mirror performance. Upon its maturity, the CSEM technology will provide both high performance and cost efficient cooled deformable mirrors for the needs of the high energy laser community.
Mark A. Ealey, Mark A. Ealey, John F. Washeba, John F. Washeba, "Continuous facesheet low voltage deformable mirrors," Optical Engineering 29(10), (1 October 1990). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.55715 . Submission:


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