1 October 1990 Development of technologies for production of high quality grazing incidence x-ray mirrors on graphite epoxy substrates
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Optical Engineering, 29(10), (1990). doi:10.1117/12.55726
Abstract
The design concept of the mirrors for the European Space Agency's high throughput x-ray spectroscopy mission XMM is characterized by thin (?1 mm) graphite epoxy shells as the mirror structure and a replication technique to produce the mirror surface. The mirror microroughness is specified to ? ?0.5 nm (rms); profile errors should not exceed ±2.5 arcsec. An ESA research study has been performed by Carl Zeiss and subcontractors (Dornier GmbH, Max Planck Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik/Garching, University of Leicester, X-ray Astronomical Group, Dept. of Physics) to clarify whether graphite epoxy mirror structures are able to meet the tight XMM mirror figuring and surface requirements and to determine what measures have to be taken to overcome the typical problems associated with composite materials used as mirror substrates, such as print-through of fibers and inner structure, short term/long term stability, and water absorption and outgassing. The starting conditions and progress during development are described. The present status of optical and x-ray performance of replicated flat graphite epoxy mirrors is reported, and aspects for further improvement of graphite epoxy mirrors is discussed.
Wilhelm J. Egle, Horst Bulla, Dietmar Scheulen, Bernd Aschenbach, Heinrich W. Braeuninger, "Development of technologies for production of high quality grazing incidence x-ray mirrors on graphite epoxy substrates," Optical Engineering 29(10), (1 October 1990). http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.55726
JOURNAL ARTICLE
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KEYWORDS
Mirrors

Epoxies

X-rays

Gold

X-ray optics

Optical fibers

Grazing incidence

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